DRIVER ENGAGEMENT User experience of static & dynamic interaction and engagement in Non-Driving Related Activities in Automated Vehicles - An experimental study
The rapid development of automation in vehicles is reshaping the role of the driver and consequently changing driver behavior. This study is based on the SAE level 4 of automation, i.e the autonomous vehicle (AV) can drive fully autonomously in a conditioned area. The driver does not need to monitor the driving and can instead fully engage in a non-driving related activity (NDRA). The purpose of this study is to examine user experience in relation to engagement in NDRA (video watching and lego building) as well as timing of the take-over requests (TOR). This includes investigating a holistic view of the experience in a take-over scenario. Participants of this study were divided in two groups, with static and dynamic time frames. Static time frame entailed that the TOR was issued at fixed times for both NDRAs, compared with the dynamic time frame where the TOR was presented at different times depending on which NDRA the participant was engaged in. The two NDRAs were in turn divided into high and low engagement. Engagement level in NDRA showed a clear effect of how the participant experienced the take-over scenario, while time frames did not. Participants showed a preference for the static time frame of TORs. However, preference of time frame did not depend on which time frame the participant experienced during the test. A main influence on how participants reasoned about the preferred timing of the TOR was attitudes towards AVs.
Non-Driving Related Activities, Take-over Request, SAE Level 4, Engagement, Situational Awareness, Self Assessment Manikin, The Contextual Control Model, Take-Over Scenario