Vuxen och rädd - Att lindra lidande vid stickrädsla
Background: Fear of needles does not only cause problem for the sufferer but also for the health care professionals in various care related situations such as phlebotomy, venipuncture or other invasive procedures including needles, syringes or cannulas. Although these procedures are accepted by most individuals it can for some people cause fear, anxiety and may even lead to healthcare avoidance. It is estimated to affect 3-4% within the adult population. Aim: The aim of this essay is to recognise and describe what kind of nursing care actions could reduce suffering among adult patients experiencing needle fear. Method: This paper is a literature review and include 14 articles of which 12 are quantitative and 2 are qualitative. The collected material was analysed and resulted in 3 main themes. Result: The main findings are as following: the hospital- or care environment and the sight of needles, syringes and cannulas cause distress for patients with needle fear and contribute to the patient feeling faint, sweaty or nauseous. The use of Emla and cold spray are both confirmed to relief pain related to procedures including needles, syringes and cannulas. Non-pharmacological methods also proved to be helpful, more specifically applied tension, respiratory exercises and visualisation. Conclusion: The suffering that patients with needle fear experience can be eased by nursing care actions. It is clear that not only pain relief but also the patient learning to take control over the situation are effective methods in situations meeting patients with needle fear. Needle fear is commonly associated with paediatrics where prevention is part of the routine work and described in documents. The wish with this paper is to call for further research in needle fear among adult patients.