Symptomatic Associations between Attention- Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Trauma, and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Children
This study aimed to assess the symptomatic associations between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptomatology, trauma exposure, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptomatology. The sample consisted of 16,340 children from a population-based Swedish twin study. Trauma exposure, PTSD, and ADHD symptomatology was parentrated in a structured telephone interview. Trauma exposure and subsequent PTSD was positively associated with ADHD prevalence. ADHD in traumaexposed individuals was more severe than in non-trauma-exposed individuals. Individuals with PTSD and ADHD displayed an elevated ADHD symptomatology compared to trauma-exposed individuals without PTSD. In comorbid ADHD and PTSD, the order of trauma and onset of ADHD did not impact ADHD severity. The study confirms the association between ADHD, trauma exposure, and PTSD and suggests that traumaexposed children are at risk for more severe ADHD.