Aluminiumskulptur i utemiljö En skadeinventering av offentlig skulptur i aluminium
Aluminum Sculpture Outdoors - A Condition Survey of Public Aluminum Sculpture
The number of publications concerning problems with aluminum sculptures is limited. As a metal it is known for its durability; there are few problems with sculptures indoor. However, when artistic works constructed of aluminum are placed outdoors, they are exposed to fluctuating climates and the risk for damages is greater. The aim of this study is to explore how aluminum sculptures are effected by outdoor environments, to discuss the types of damages that may occur to these sculptures, and to the conceivable causes for such damages. Inventory and cases studies of the condition of 17 aluminum sculptures in the open air were investigated. The sculptures date to between 1960 and 2012 and are located in six places in Sweden: Kristianstad, Gothenburg, Varberg, Borås, Örebro and Stockholm. Literature review provided information on the historical, technical, and chemical context for the sculptures. Interviews with artists, curators and foundries provided in-depth information on the description of the sculptures. The inventory of sculptures showed varying degrees of damages. The most frequently occurring damage was a change on the surface, including dullness and darkened surfaces. Other damages were: white corrosion, scratches, biological growth, graffiti and water accumulation. The main reasons for the damages were dependent on the manufacturing process of the sculpture, such as the alloys and surface treatment of the objects. Other reasons include by the environment and the type of climate where the sculpture had been placed. One of the main causes of change to the metal kept outside is caused by the second layer of the natural oxide film. The film forms on the metal by reaction with the exterior environment, it is porous and reacts with the atmosphere where it is in contact with moisture contained in the environment or by contaminants. Research into the patina and preservation of aluminum sculptures should be further explored, both for conservators and artists in order to provide an informed basis to preserve the sculptures into the future.
Uppsats för avläggande av filosofie kandidatexamen i Kulturvård, Konservatorprogrammet 15 hp Institutionen för kulturvård Göteborgs universitet 2015:38