Women or victims?: An analysis of National Action Plans in response to United Nations Security Council Resolution 1325 on Women, Peace and Security
Conflict affects and engages men and women in different ways. United Nations Security Council’s Resolution 1325 on Women, Peace and Security draws attention to the disproportionate impact on women during and after conflict. The resolution, adopted in 2000, calls for equal participation and full involvement. It challenges the traditional notion of gender equality, highlights the unequal and gender-specific impact on women in the context of conflict and recognizes their undervalued role in peace-building and conflict resolution. Resolution 1325 is a key milestone in international human rights and humanitarian law. This year is the fifteenth anniversary of the resolution, but still much needs to be done to implement the resolution in a successful way. This thesis aims to analyse National Action Plans adopted in response to the implementing of the Security Council Resolution 1325 by the five countries: the Republic of Korea, Iraq, Nigeria, Macedonia and Kyrgyzstan, to examine how an international document linked to peace and security is interpreted and converted into national aims in terms of gender mainstreaming and securitizing women’s rights in the context of conflict. The empirical material consists of these five National Action Plans. By conducting a critical discourse analysis the content of the action plans are analysed and assessed in relation to the four core mandates of the resolution, Participation, Protection, Prevention and Peace-building and the theoretical framework based on theories regarding gender and power structures. National efforts, aims and priorities to achieve gender mainstreaming and the provisions of the resolution are crucial for women’s access to rights and agency. The findings of the analysis show five rather different interpretations of the resolution. The rhetoric and restrictive formulations in the plans occasionally tend to boost deep-rooted gender structures and assumptions such as women are victims in need of protection.
National Action Plans