|dc.description||All criteria documents produced by the Nordic Expert Group may be downloaded
Sjögren B, Iregren A, Järnberg J. The Nordic Expert Group for Criteria
Documentation of Health Risks from Chemicals. 143. Phosphate triesters with
flame retardant properties. Arbete och Hälsa 2010;44(6):1-220.
This document comprises the following phosphate triesters:
Tricresyl phosphate TCP Triethyl phosphate TEP
Tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate TBEP TIPP
Tri-n-butyl phosphate TBP
Triisopropylated phenyl phosphate/
isopropylated triphenyl phosphate
Tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate TCEP Tris(monochloropropyl) phosphate TMCPP
Tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate TDCPP Triphenyl phosphate TPP
Tris(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate TEHP
The phosphate triesters are mainly used as flame retardants and plasticisers. They
differ widely in physical properties as well as toxicological profiles and toxic
potency. Most of these esters have low vapour pressures and are presumably absorbed
to a substantial degree by the skin. The dermal exposure route may therefore
be more important than inhalation.
Human toxicological data on the phosphate triesters are scarce, particularly
regarding occupational inhalation exposure. Based on animal data, the critical
effects vary depending on substance and include cholinesterase inhibition, neurotoxicity,
cancer, reproductive toxicity, and liver and kidney toxicity.
Organophosphorus-induced delayed neuropathy (OPIDN) has been associated
with exposure to some triaryl phosphates. The most well-known example is the
TCP isomer tri-ortho-cresyl phosphate (TOCP), which has been associated with
numerous cases of poisoning worldwide. The TOCP content is therefore kept at
a very low level in commercial phosphate ester products of today. Commercial
products of TCP, TIPP and TPP may, however, contain other triaryl phosphates
associated with OPIDN. Several other phosphate triesters have shown other (non-
OPIDN) neurotoxic effects in animals.
Some of the esters covered in this document exhibit carcinogenic effects in
animals (TBP, TCEP, TDCPP and TEHP), whereas TCP shows no such potential.
The other esters have not been properly tested.
The lowest observed adverse effect levels (LOAELs) of the phosphate triesters
range from 5 to 600 mg/kg bw/day. The no observed adverse effect levels
(NOAELs), only identified for TBEP, TBP and one commercial product of TIPP,
are in the range 9-20 mg/kg bw/day.||sv
|dc.description.sponsorship||This work was financially supported by the Swedish Work Environment
Authority, the former Swedish National Institute for Working Life, and the
Norwegian Ministry of Labour.||sv
|dc.relation.ispartofseries||Arbete och Hälsa||sv
|dc.subject||cancer, flame retardant, neurotoxicity, occupational exposure limit,||sv
|dc.subject||organophosphorus-induced delayed neuropathy (OPIDN), phosphate esters,||sv
|dc.subject||reproductive toxicity, review, risk assessment, skin absorption||sv
|dc.title||143. Phosphate triesters with flame retardant properties||sv
|dc.contributor.organization||Swedish Work Environment Authority||sv