Hydrogen technology in the Swedish automobile sector - a Multi-Level Perspective approach
In this essay, we study possible pathways for the introduction of hydrogen technology in the Swedish automobile sector. It is an environmentally much preferable alternative to the current, fossil-fuel based, system which emits large amounts of greenhouse gases. However, the transport sector is hard to affect since the current technologies enjoy benefits from several different positive feedback loops. A vicious circle is created since new technologies, like our, must benefit from the feedback loops to reach competitiveness but they will not start gaining from them as they are not competitive yet. By applying the multi-level perspective introduced by Rip and Kemp (1998), we identified important steps in trying to realise a transition away from the fossil fuel-based transport system. The framework was applied on hydrogen technology for the automobile sector and as further input a number of interviews were conducted. Our studies helped us identify a number of results such as the need for technology specific policies and long-sightedness in Swedish energy politics. These actions are needed since hy- drogen technology is today too far from competitiveness to be seriously helped by economy wide policies. Furthermore, to gain new business in this area the companies should cooperate with each other to a larger extent than in their normal business, something called "running in packs". The rationale for the companies to cooperate is that it is better to have a limited share in a large successful market than being monopolist on one that never takes off.
Industriell och finansiell ekonomi