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dc.contributor.authorAgbondinmwin, Wilson Osarodion
dc.date.accessioned2024-04-18T09:17:44Z
dc.date.available2024-04-18T09:17:44Z
dc.date.issued2024-04-18
dc.identifier.urihttps://hdl.handle.net/2077/80832
dc.description.abstractSubstantial evidence prevails in research confirming the daunting and challenging development of the generation and handling of wastes especially through transfers between regions. This study analyses the philosophy of the global waste network and how wastes are being reallocated between regions globally based on case studies of e-wastes. The background of the global e-waste generation, distribution, and impact are covered- a scope that encompasses the characteristic e-waste flows from source to final destination especially between developed and developing regions of the world. The study is conducted as a literature review, and it highlights the dynamics of the transboundary movement of waste to poorer nations. These include the routes and patterns by which waste end up at informal recycling units; the evolving activities that follow the transfer; the actors involved all-through to the impacted location; as well as the broken link within the control strategies that continues to allow the flow of wastes through legal and illegal means. Based on two case studies of Waste from Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE)- in China and in Nigeria, it was seen that generation increases steadily over time. Although illegal, it was found that a substantial part of WEEE is moved from developed to developing countries in uncontrolled shipment of used electrical and electronic equipment. Analyzing the year 2019 Global E-waste Monitor (GEM) reports shows that about 10% of the global e-waste generated that year is been transferred across borders and about 64% (i.e., 3.3 Mt) of these were transferred illegally and likely have a significant negative environmental impact at the final destination country. In the Nigeria case, little interest in the formal handling of these waste was observed and it seems that the government incentives are low. Increasing rate of waste generation without improving the formal recycling system of handling waste produces impacts on health, and the environment. Sadly, developing countries may become the highest generators of e-waste in the future due to the projected increase in populations as well as the upgrade in developmental metrics as with the case of China. Various factors drive transboundary waste movement, such as standards classifying nations, regional consumption patterns, international trade links, and underlying market economics facilitating waste trades. Other are weak enforcement of legislation, incoherent regional legislative objectives, the complications set by numerous stakeholders/actors, waste transfer gains and the emerging business opportunities. Trading in WEEE with little concern for health/welfare of vulnerable people and the environment is an issue that seeks regional/global attention. But many developing countries ignore the ethics and the need for social and environmental sustainability as they model their trading policies. Diverse circumstances between developed and developing regions drive the movement of waste streams, particularly across borders. Transboundary e-waste movements are influenced by concepts such as the Pollution Haven Hypothesis (PHH)- i.e., relocation of wastes to countries with weaker environmental regulations to reduce costs. The preview on what propels the WEEE flow/transfer system is quite revealing. E-waste trade is a market driven entity with little or no concern for a sustainable business development. Stakeholders and actors involve with WEEE transfers would sometimes allow illegal quantities of WEEE to move across borders, while others would make-obscure the actual data statistics of WEEE moving across border. The Hidden flows and the hidden routes on the WEEE flow system, fly tipping, and green listing of waste, are common malpractices that allow illegal waste transfers and inadequate accounting. In all, a higher e-waste generation rate for the developed countries causes a slope that allows the waste to be moved by market forces (push and pull forces) on to the developing countries who have little interest in a formal management practice. In conclusion, urgent action is required: i) harmonize regional/national regulations on e-waste reduction and transfer through shared research, data, and policy; ii) foster collaboration among scientists, politicians, and stakeholders to minimize environmental impacts; iii) enact and enforce robust environmental crime laws. Globally, both developed and developing regions must unite to regulate and mitigate e-waste generation and transfer.sv
dc.language.isoengsv
dc.subjectE-waste, Controlled and uncontrolled UEEE/WEEE, Illegal waste Trade, The circular economy, The developed and developing countriessv
dc.titleFLOWS OF WASTE AND SECONDHAND ITEMS FROM DEVELOPED TO DEVELOPING COUNTRIES: A case study of e-wastes in Nigeria and Chinasv
dc.typeText
dc.setspec.uppsokLifeEarthScience
dc.type.uppsokH2
dc.contributor.departmentUniversity of Gothenburg / Department of Biological and Environmental Scienceseng
dc.contributor.departmentGöteborgs universitet / Institutionen för biologi och miljövetenskapswe
dc.type.degreeStudent essay


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