An Exploration of CSR Perceptions and Attitudes of Male and Female Entrepreneurs in Pakistan: A comparison
Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) as become an important consideration in modern business management and its relevance to the performance of business firms. Literature has argued that male and females have different orientations towards CSR, but most of the previous studies are conducted for large corporations and in more developed countries, while small firms and less developed countries like Pakistan have received little attention for empirical investigation to understand gender differences pertaining to CSR orientation of entrepreneurs. This study further borrows Social Role Theory from sociology to explain the differences. Using qualitative data from 19 entrepreneurs from Pakistan, this study confirms prevalence of gender difference between male and female for their orientation towards CSR. It was found that male entrepreneurs have a more quantitative or economic orientation towards business and CSR, while female entrepreneurs have a qualitative or intrinsic orientation. Further, males depicted a transactional attitude towards stakeholders, and female entrepreneurs had a relational attitude towards stakeholder. Lastly, women entrepreneurs were found to be more expressive for their ethical outlook. This study also explains that these difference stem from the assignment of gender roles in the society, were male assume economic role of earning the livelihood and is more masculine and aggressive. On the other hand, women are charged with the responsibility of management of household in Pakistan, forcing them to adopt a kind, nurturing, respectful, and considerate.
MSc in Management