Polycystic ovary syndrome in a lifetime perspective
Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is common, affecting 9-18% of women. PCOS is associated with symptoms due to hyperandrogenism and ovarian dysfunction, but is also associated with the metabolic syndrome including obesity, insulin resistance and elevated blood lipids. The post-menopausal consequences are uncertain, due to the lack of long-term studies. Aim: To increase the knowledge about ageing women with PCOS. Material and method: Two cohorts of women with PCOS and their age-matched controls have been followed prospectively: cohort 1 (PCOS n = 33 and controls n = 94) on two occasions, and cohort 2 (PCOS n = 37 and controls n = 120) on three occasions. The women with PCOS from the two cohorts together cover an age range from 20 to 91 years. Results: Women with PCOS reached the menopause four years later than controls. Parity and nulliparity did not differ. 19% of the women with PCOS had developed type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) at perimenopause, vs. 1% of controls, but all women who developed T2DM were obese and had a high waist hip ratio already at mean age 30 years. Health-related quality of life did not differ at mean age 52 years. Women with PCOS had persistently lower FSH up to a mean age of 81 years, where hirsutism was more frequent (33 vs 4%), but biochemical hyperandrogenism did not differ. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) events, CVD-related or all-cause mortality did not differ at this age. Conclusion: Women with PCOS did not suffer from increased mortality or increased CVD events, despite increased risk factors. This might be caused by possible protective factors such as a delayed menopause, and hormonal factors that differed from those of the controls at senescence.
Parts of work
I. Forslund M, Landin-Wilhelmsen K, Schmidt J, Brannstrom M, Trimpou P, Dahlgren E. Higher menopausal age but no differences in parity in women with polycystic ovary syndrome compared with controls. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2019;98(3):320-6. ::doi::10.1111/aogs.13489II. Forslund M, Landin-Wilhelmsen K, Trimpou P, Schmidt J, Brannstrom M, Dahlgren E. Type 2 diabetes mellitus in women with polycystic ovary syndrome during a 24-year period: importance of obesity and abdominal fat distribution. Hum Reprod Open. 2020;2020(1):hoz042 ::doi::10.1093/hropen/hoz042III. Forslund M, Landin-Wilhelmsen K, Krantz E, Trimpou P, Schmidt J, Brannstrom M, Trimpou P, Dahlgren E. Health-Related Quality of Life in Perimenopausal Women with PCOS. Manuscript.IV. Forslund M, Schmidt J, Brannstrom M, Landin-Wilhelmsen K, Dahlgren E. Reproductive hormones and anthropometry: A follow-up of PCOS and their age-matched controls from perimenopause to a mean age above 80 years. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 2020.10.1210/clinem/dgaa840. ::doi::10.1210/clinem/dgaa840V. Forslund M, Schmidt J, Brannstrom M, Landin-Wilhelmsen K, Dahlgren E. No evidence of increased morbidity and mortality in PCOS: A prospective follow-up up to mean age above 80 years. Manuscript.
Doctor of Philosophy (Medicine)
University of Gothenburg. Sahlgrenska Academy
Institute of Clinical Sciences. Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Fredagen den 15 januari 2021, klockan 9.00, Hörsal Arvid Carlsson, Academicum, Medicinaregatan 3
Date of defence
type 2 diabetes mellitus
quality of life