50 år av Hemoglobinnivåer hos kvinnor i Kvinnoundersökningen 1968-1969 till 2016-2017
50 years of Hemoglobin Levels in Women in the Population Study of Women in Gothenburg 1968-1969 to 2016-2017
Introduction: Anemia is a global problem and women and children are the most affected. The symptoms of anemia are for example tiredness, dyspnea and headache. Previous studies of trends of anemia over time have not been conclusive whether anemia has decreased or increased. Furthermore, it is hard to find studies of trends of anemia and hemoglobin (Hb) levels in women for the last decades. Objective: To study trends of Hb and anemia in ten different cohorts of women aged 38 respectively 50 years old examined in 1968-69, 1980-81, 1992-93, 2004-05 and 2016-17. Methods: The Population Study of Women in Gothenburg is a prospective observational study initiated in 1968. A representative sample of women were invited for a free health examination including inquiry of health and social situation, medical examination and blood samples. New women have been invited in 1980, 1992, 2004 and 2016. Participation rate have been 59-90%, n=2450. Results: The relationship between birth year and Hb levels was U-formed with lowest values measured in the examination in 1992 for both 38- and 50-year-old women. This relationship remained after adjusting for confounders. Conclusion: Depending on year of birth, the Hb levels have varied since the population study of women in Gothenburg started in 1968-69. In the future, it is important to continue to observe trends of anemia and to find risk factors associated with this condition. The symptoms of anemia often have a negative impact on quality of life, therefore it is crucial to prevent anemia and thereby reduce suffering.