Instructions and Generalizations Post-Simulation Debriefing in Maritime Training
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate post-simulation debriefing in maritime training. For this purpose, the scope was divided into two focal areas: the process of post-simulation debriefing and instructions in post-simulation debriefing. For each focal area, three research questions have been formulated and used as a support to give the study direction. In the matter of the process of post-simulation debriefing, the aim of the research questions was to identify the structural components of the debriefing process. As for the instructions in post-simulation-debriefing, the aim was to understand how the subject was taught. Theory: The theoretical background presents a panoramic view of debriefing, which includes the origin and concept of debriefing, the process of debriefing as well as the critical aspects of debriefing. As for the origin and concept of debriefing, the theoretical background depicts how historical roots have shaped various concepts of debriefing. Subsequently, an assortment of various conceptual frameworks, models and strategies provides perspectives on the process of debriefing. Henceforth, the subsection titled “critical aspects of debriefing” describe crucial features of previous research. This section presents perspective on instruction, elements of debriefing, how concepts and elements of debriefing can be understood, teaching in debriefing and standards of best practice, leadership in debriefing as well as a view of the contemporary position of previous research. Method: This study chose an educational environment of maritime training using Bridge Operations Simulators. Exercises or tasks were conducted in these simulators, where the debriefing sessions were held after a simulation-based exercise or task. This study was an extension of a research project and focused on approximately 16 hours of video data, where each video clip was between 2-12 minutes, involving three instructors at different occasions and in total involved 10-20 students. The study had an inductive approach, used video as a data collection method and was based on an observational approach. The data material was systematically managed, where the selected data was based on the relevance of the research objectives. Subsequently, the analysis method consisted of procedures in the shape of coding and transcripts. Results: The study resulted in several findings. First, the structure of post-simulation debriefing in maritime training consisted of both a general process as well as a specific process. The general process included three main phases, such as the initial phase, the central phase and the final phase. In turn, each phase involved several key steps that formed the specific process of post-simulation debriefing. These key steps emerged as the introduction of the debriefing session, overviewing the simulation-based exercise, framing and defining the problem, specifying the simulation-based scenarios, problem analysis and problem solutions, key lessons and summaries, the closures of debriefing and finally, the purposes with and goals in debriefing. Despite this, during the debriefing process, procedures that involved instructional guidance, the contrasts between general and specific information as well as various forms of generalizations were prominent features. As a consequence, these procedures verified that the various practices, for instance, troubleshooting, evaluation and generalizations, consistently occurred. It confirmed that the key steps in post-simulation debriefing process, in its consecutive order, were not affirmed. Rather, the process of post-simulation debriefing was flexible and consisted of versatility.