Competition in the Swedish Pharmacy Market
Abstract Since the deregulation of the state monopoly of Apoteket AB, several private agents have entered the Swedish pharmacy market which has resulted in a new competitive environment. For analysing competition in the market, this study uses six years of data for 2009, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014 and 2015. Panel data estimation allows for comparisons both over time and between municipalities. The major results indicate that competition is weak among the pharmacies and that the number of pharmacies increases in markets with more chains. Overall, the reform has resulted in higher availability for the consumers and longer opening hours, with the largest impact in urban areas where the majority of the new pharmacies have established.