3D-teknik som ett verktyg för bevarande - digital dokumentation och fysisk rekonstruktion
3D Technologies as a Tool for Preservation - Digital Documentation and Physical Reconstruction
This thesis aims to examine the impact of 3D technologies, how they can be implemented in conservation work and what practical or ethical aspects need to be considered. Literature studies and interviews provided information on the historical context of replication as well as technical application and methodology within the cultural heritage field. Two case studies are presented in this thesis where 3D scanning and additive manufacturing have been used to restore fragmented sculptures: The Thinker by Rodin and The Madonna of Pietranico. During the restoration of The Thinker the original plaster cast was scanned to create a new lower leg that had been lost to vandalization. Deformations were analysed and corrected with the help of digital models. The restoration of The Madonna of Pietranico, which had been damaged in an earthquake, involved scanning the fragments to create an internal support structure. Digital analysis of the fractured fragments enabled exact positioning. These case studies show how digitization methods using non-contact structured light or laser scanning can be used to gain a detailed understanding of a work of art and its characteristics. Virtual models can help convey these aspects and virtual restoration can reveal the initial condition of the object. Additive manufacturing can aid in the process of restoration by enabling exact replication and reconstruction of an object’s missing parts. Additionally, the thesis explores how classic and contemporary theories of restoration ethics relate to the new working conditions made available by these techniques. 3D technologies have made it possible to recreate information digitally and physically with higher precision than ever before. As a result, questions arise about authenticity in terms of material and function, artist intent and integrity. Reconstruction of new parts can help reestablish the object as a whole and its associated values, but may also obscure its history. Complete replication of a work of art may indirectly protect the original, but poses questions about authenticity and originality. By displaying an object’s restoration history alongside it, possibly complemented with virtual models, perhaps the experience of a restored work of art may be considered more ”true” or complete. Finally, the role of the conservator is discussed in relation to the increase of interdisciplinary collaboration and the broadening tasks of the conservator. In short, the availability of 3D technologies, and the opportunities and problems they present, makes the ongoing discussions among conservators about the ”ideal” and the ”real” state of an object even more relevant.
Uppsats för avläggande av filosofie kandidatexamen i Kulturvård, Konservatorprogrammet 15 hp Institutionen för kulturvård Göteborgs universitet 2015:09